8 Oct 2012


You CAN Save the Tiger!
By Darshita Pathak
7th CE

If you think you are just one person and there isn't much you can do to save the tiger, you are wrong. There are plenty of ways you can help. For a start, you could join Kids for Tigers or one of the many tiger conservation organisations working on the issue. Here are some more ideas.
Start your Own Rally
One of the best things you could do to save the tiger is to spread the message. You could do this by taking part in, or starting your own rally. All you have to do is get a few of your friends who love tigers to get a few of their friends who love tigers and gather together at a public place. With posters and pamphlets in support of the tiger, you'd be amazed at how much interest you will generate.
Start a Signature Campaign
If you know that there are tigers in a forest near your hometown, start a petition to declare the area a tiger reserve. Create awareness about the area and gather as many signatures as you can. Make sure your local government hears you loud and clear. Taking your signature scroll to a tiger conservation organisation will add to their efforts.
Start your Own 'NGO' or Nature Club
Get your tiger-loving friends together. Educate your families and neighbours, your teachers and school friends. Organise 'zero-cost' activities like nature walks and birdwatching trips with your friends and family. 'Notice Nature' and your understanding and respect for the natural world will deepen. If you really understand the issues, access images from a tiger conservation group and organise an audio-visual in your school.
Write Letters to the Prime Minister and to Newspapers
Make a written appeal to the Prime Minister or the Chief Minister of your state asking them to make tigers a priority. Tell them that you want your country's natural wealth protected. It is, after all, their job. If you see an environmental offence taking place near where you live, report it to your local newspaper.
Raise Money for Tiger Conservation
Think up creative ways to raise money for tiger conservation. You could sell Diwali cards. If you are a great chef, bake cakes and cookies or make lemonade for sale during a fair or a sports day. Organise a "Tiger Run" and get people to sponsor every participant that finishes a race. Once you have collected a sum, send it to your favourite tiger conservation organisation.
Be a Good Earthling
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Refuse. Turn off the tap while you brush, turn out the light when you leave a room, use less paper. Don't use plastic bags unnecessarily. Use glass over styrofoam and don't buy stuff you don't really need. These seem like small things but they aren't. When you save the earth's resources, you are saving tigers.

How is Wildlife Affected by Global Warming?

Most researchers agree that even small changes in temperature are enough to send hundreds if not thousands of already struggling species into extinction unless we can stem the tide of global warming. And time may be of the essence: A 2003 study published in the journal Nature concluded that 80 percent of some 1,500 wildlife species sampled are already showing signs of stress from climate change.

How Global Warming Affects Wildlife

The key impact of global warming on wildlife is habitat displacement, whereby ecosystems that animals have spent millions of years adapting to shift quickly. Ice giving way to water in polar bear habitat is just one example of this.
Another, according to The Washington Post, is the possibility that warmer spring temperatures could dry up critical breeding habitat for waterfowl in the prairie pothole region, a stretch of land between northern Iowa and central Alberta.
Affected wildlife populations can sometimes move into new spaces and continue to thrive. But concurrent human population growth means that many land areas that might be suitable for such “refugee wildlife” are already taken and cluttered with residential and industrial development.
Shifting Life Cycles and Global Warming

Beyond habitat displacement, many scientists agree that global warming is causing a shift in the timing of various natural cyclical events in the lives of animals. Many birds have altered the timing of long-held migratory and reproductive routines to better sync up with a warming climate. And some hibernating animals are ending their slumbers earlier each year, perhaps due to warmer spring temperatures.
To make matters worse, recent research contradicts the long-held hypothesis that different species coexisting in a particular ecosystem respond to global warming as a single entity. Instead, different species sharing like habitat are responding in dissimilar ways, tearing apart ecological communities millennia in the making.

Global Warming Effects on Animals Affect People Too
 As wildlife species go their separate ways, humans can also feel the impact. A World Wildlife Fund study found that a northern exodus from the United States to Canada by some types of warblers led to a spread of mountain pine beetles that destroy economically productive balsam fir trees. Similarly, a northward migration of caterpillars in the Netherlands has eroded some forests there.
Which Animals Are Hardest Hit by Global Warming?
According to Defenders of Wildlife, some of the wildlife species hardest hit so far by global warming include caribou (reindeer), arctic foxes, toads, polar bears, penguins, gray wolves, tree swallows, painted turtles and salmon. The group fears that unless we take decisive steps to reverse global warming, more and more species will join the list of wildlife populations pushed to the brink of extinction by a changing climate.

7th semester (I.T.)

Endangered Stripes

In Chinese mythology, the white tiger was appointed the guardian of the country’s west. Legend had it that if a tiger ever survived to its 500th birthday, its tail would turn white. Consequently, white tigers would only appear to emperors who ruled virtuously: they were the symbols of a peaceful reign.
But while tigers might be revered creatures in Chinese lore, the king of beasts now faces a tipping point in its existence. According to the Chinese zodiac, this is the Year of the Tiger. Scientists and wildlife advocates are hoping the year’s iconic importance will help in saving the world’s last remaining wild tigers.
The great cats have historically inspired everyone from poets to warriors. They now also symbolize vanishing environments that support both animals and humans. In India, there’s a saying that when the tiger disappears, the forests will fall.
According to the Save the Tiger Fund, wild tiger numbers have slid from 100,000 as recently as a century ago to as low as 3200 last year. The threat of extinction looms for the Siberian tiger, the world’s largest cat. A 2009 report by the Siberian Tiger Monitoring Programme, co-ordinate by the Wildlife Conservation Society in association with Russian government organizations among others, revealed that recent Siberian tiger numbers have plummeted by 41% from their 12-year average.
“That came as a big shock,” says Judy Mills, the co-coordinator for the International Tiger Coalition. She describes 2010 as “the most important year in the history of tigers”, and believes it will be absolutely critical for the tiger’s future.
“Tyger Tyger, burning bright”
National and international leaders agree with Mills. Late last year, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin unveiled a last ditch effort to save the Siberian tiger. He plans to host an international summit with the World Bank in Vladivostok this September, and has set the goal of doubling wild tiger numbers worldwide to 6500 by the year 2022.
Conservation organizations have planned a series of workshops leading up to Putin’s tiger summit in Vladivostok. But China’s decisions carry special weight that could either save or doom tigers.
Wildlife experts point back to 1993, which was when the Chinese government banned the trade in tiger parts used for traditional Chinese medicine. The move helped to curb consumer demand, which has consistently driven poachers to hunt down wild tigers.

7th Semester(I.T.)


 by Ramani Darshit
7th mech.
Even as efforts are on to declare it the state bird of Maharashtra, the critically endangered forest owlet’s habitat continues to either vanish or degrade due to encroachment and inappropriate forest management. Of the species that was thought to be extinct in 1884 only to be sighted again in 1997, 113 years later, by a group of American ornithologists, only 300 to 500 forest owlets remain. Now, experts feel its elevation to state bird status may do more harm than good.
The bird, also known as Blewitt’s Owl, was first spotted in December 1872 in the Bansa-Phuljar range in the eastern part of the then Central Provinces, now Chhattisgarh, by a British bird collector, F R Blewitt. The forest owlet is now critically endangered as per the International Union for Conservation of Nature list and Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act of India. “We were not able to find even one pair in and around the woods in Chhattisgarh. Almost all those forests have been cut down and the land is now used for farming by tribals,” says Girish Jathar, a wildlife researcher working on forest owlets. He adds, “A habitat modelling study by our team has suggested that there has been a 20 per cent decrease in the prime habitat of the bird since 2004.”
In 1997, the bird was rediscovered by American ornithologist Pamela Rasmussen in Toranmal in Nandurbar district of Maharashtra. It is endemic to central India and is found in Melghat, Toranmal, Taloda and some sites in Khandwa and Burhanpur districts in Madhya Pradesh. It has been observed that the owlet is found in forests with a high density of teak trees. “As a tiger finds its place at the top of the food chain in the forests, the forest owlet, too, is at the top of the food chain and thus indicates a healthy forest. Declaring it a state bird of Maharashtra will attract a large number of amateur photographers and enthusiasts to the fortunately-not-so-well-known sites. One can see what has happened to tiger reserves,” says Dharmaraj Patil, who along with Jathar, was part of a detailed study of the bird in central India.
A method called ‘call replay’ is used to spot the bird. Jathar says, “There is a danger that if tourists use this method increasingly for sighting the bird, there may be adverse physiological and behavioural effects. Birds have been seen destroying their own nests and breaking their own eggs.” In their study, these researchers had recommended that cattle grazing be banned in and around the identified sites and had also asked the forest department not to take forest management measures like drawing fire lines in March, which is the peak breeding season of the bird.
In 2010, the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) had recommended the bird for state bird status. The proposal will come up for discussion when the Wildlife Board of Maharashtra state meets next. BNHS director Asad Rahmani says, “The present state bird of Maharashtra, the yellow-footed green pigeon, is found not only found in Maharashtra and India but also in some of the neighbouring countries. The forest owlet, which is found almost only in Maharashtra, is a suitable state bird. The status will help as it did in the case of tigers.”
Madhav Gadgil, an environmentalist and natural historian, says that in case of many animals, special status has not visibly helped their conservation.


The deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil is the degradation of an environment.Thus any type of imbalance in an environment is undesirable.But humans are continously interrupting the cycle of nature for their own comforts.PLASTICS, the non-biodegradable thing is used by everybody as it is convenient and easy to use right from the vegetable vendor to a designer store. But most of us are blissfully of the repurcussions that are occuring and will take place in the future.This shows plastics have become an immense part of a human life.
One report says” The per capita consumption of plastic in India doubled from 4 kg in 2006 to 8 kg in 2010, and would touch the global average of 27 kg per person by 2020. Among the factors driving this growth are increasing use of plastics in packaging, infrastructure, agriculture, automotives, healthcare and FMCG segments”Ashok Goel, president, PlastIndia Foundation, an industry body, said the current size of the plastics industry is Rs 85,000 crore, and would grow at an average of 10 percent a year over the next five years to reach Rs 1.33 lakh crore by 2015.He said  60 percent of the plastics consumed in India is recycled, but the plastic remnants in municipal waste (accounting for 3 percent of the total waste) create a negative impression around its use.  60 percent of the plastics consumed in India is recycled, but the plastic remnants in municipal waste (accounting for 3 percent of the total waste) create a negative impression around its use.
Another report in Business-Standard says” The per capita consumption of plastic in the country stood at 6 kg now and is expected to go up to 12 kg by 2011. By 2012, India is also projected to be the third largest consumer market for plastic goods with a consumption of 12.5 million tonnes per annum, behind US and China. While the consumption of plastics in US is projected at 38.9 million tonnes per annum, China will be neck to neck with US at 38.8 million tonnes per annum."
Now the question is why this issue is critical? The following effects of use of plastics gives us the answer.
Litter the landscape: Once they are used, most bags go into landfill, or rubbish tips. Each year more and more bags are ending up littering the environment. Once they become litter, plastic bags find their way into our waterways, parks, beaches, and streets. And, if they are burned, they infuse the air with toxic fumes.
Kill animals: About 100,000 animals such as dolphins, turtles whales, penguins are killed every year due to these bags. Many animals ingest plastic bags, mistaking them for food, and therefore die. And worse, the ingested plastic bag remains intact even after the death and decomposition of the animal. Thus, it lies around in the landscape where another victim may ingest it.
Non-biodegradable:And one of the worst environmental effects is that they are non-biodegradable. The decomposition takes about 400 years. No one will live so long to witness decomposition of plastic. Thus, save the environment for the future generation of humans as well as animals.
Petroleum is required to produce plastic bags: As it is, petroleum products are diminishing and getting more expensive by the day, since we have used this non-renewable resource increasingly. Petroleum is vital for our modern way of life. It is necessary for our energy requirements - for our factories, transport, heating, lighting, and so on.
So.the next thing to take into account is ”What can be done about the Use of Plastic Bags?”Single-use bags have become such a ubiquitous way of life that it seems as if we simply cannot do without them. However, if we have the will, we can start reducing their use in small ways.A ban on plastics is already levied but the ammendment of the act is not seen up to the mark and the impact of the ban is not observed for a long term.There must be a social awareness regarding the issue only after which the scenario will change.
A tote bag can make a good substitute for holding the shopping. You can keep the bag with the cashier, and then put your purchases into it instead of the usual plastic bag.Recycling the bags you already have is another good idea. These can come into use for various purposes, like holding your garbage, instead of purchasing new ones.More and more goods need to be packed within a recyclable plastic.
While governments may be working out ways to lessen the impact of plastic bags on the environment, however, each of us should shoulder some of the responsibility for this problem, which ultimately harms us.

Brijesh Kesharia
7th Mechanical

Global Warming

Global warming
By Nirali Sejpal

The influence of manmade global warming on the climate system continues to grow, with human fingerprints identified in more than two dozen climate “indicators” examined by an international research team — from air temperatures to ocean acidity — for a comprehensive annual “State of the Climate” report released Tuesday.
In a related study also released on Tuesday, climate researchers said manmade global warming is already shifting the probability of many extreme weather and climate events, making heat waves, droughts, and other events more likely to occur in some parts of the world. The study found that manmade global warming made the devastating Texas drought and heat wave of 2011, which was the most expensive drought in the Lone Star State's history, at least 20 times more likely compared to years with similar large-scale weather patterns in the 1960s. The report also tied other recent extreme events worldwide to manmade warming.
Together, the two reports amount to a comprehensive accounting of the present state of the climate system, over which mankind is now exerting a greater impact than ever before.
        “Every weather event that happens now takes place in the context of a changing global environment,” said deputy NOAA administrator Kathryn D. Sullivan in a press release. The reports were released during a time when extreme weather events have been making international headlines, with the U.S. having just experienced an historic heat wave that has withered crops. Drought has expanded across the lower 48 states, affecting 56 percent of the contiguous U.S., and Russia is burying the dead from flash flooding that struck Krymsk, a small town near the Black Sea. Through June, the U.S. has had its warmest 12-month period, warmest year-to-date on record, and also saw a string of deadly wildfires.
The “State of the Climate 2011” report, published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS), presents a peer reviewed tour through the weather and climate events of 2011. The overriding theme that emerges from the report is that the effects of human activities are readily evident, be it in the form of rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere — global carbon dioxide concentrations hit a new all-time high of 390 parts per million last year, and will cross the 400 ppm threshold worldwide by 2016 — to the inexorable increase in ocean heat content.
The report shows that a La Nina event, characterized by cooler-than-average sea surfac e temperatures, helped keep global average surface temperatures down compared to 2010, but it was one of the warmest La Nina years on record.
In the Arctic, which has been warming at twice the rate of the rest of the globe, 2011 had the second-lowest sea ice extent on record. Barrow, Alaska, located above the Arctic Circle, experienced a record 86 straight days when the temperature failed to drop below freezing.
The Impacts of global warming
It's nearly impossible to overstate the threat of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions are rising more rapidly than predicted and the world is warming more quickly in response.

            Global warming will have 
catastrophic effects such as accelerating sea level rise, droughts, floods, storms and heat waves. These will impact some of the world's poorest and most vulnerable people, disrupting food production, and threatening vitally important species, habitats andecosystems.
As we work to reduce emissions, we must simultaneously begin to adapt to the increasing
impacts of climate change.There are many causes of Global Warming. The destruction and burning down of tropical forests , traffic clogging up the city streets , rapid growth of unplanned industries, the use of CFCs in packaging and manufacturing products, the use of detergents etc. cause Global Warming. Besides, overpopulation, deforestation are the causative factors of Global Warming. The setting up of mills and factories in an unplanned way has a great effect on environment. These mills and factories produce black smoke which gets mixed with air and increases the amount of CO2.
                 Burning of Gas such as Methane (CH4) and fuel also increase CO in the environment. Killing animals like birds, big cats, lions, tigers is also a alarming cause of Global Warming.
                 The effects of Global Warming is very dangerous for our existence and survival. The sun’s scorching heat comes to earth in a direct way. Therefore, the earth’s surface becomes seriously heated. Agriculture, forestry and fishery is seriously be damaged. This can catastrophically reduce mankind’s ability to grow foods, destroy wildlife. Global Warming also cause sea-water to swell up. All species are important for maintaining ecological balance. If one is lost, the whole natural environment changes. To prevent the dangerous effects of Global Warming necessary steps should immediately be taken.
                People should not be allowed to cut off trees which causes deforestation. Rather they should be advised and suggested to plant more and more trees in accordance with their capability and convenience. Forests also control the natural balance. People should be made aware of it. Mills, factories, brick-fields should be set up in a very good planned way. There should be well drainage system to pass away waste materials, wastages and poisonous chemicals.
The alarming world’s climate is very dangerous for mankind and ecological balance. Unless Global Warming is not controlled, no men, animals will be able to live, grow and thrive. So, we should try maintain the ecological balance to decrease the effects of Global Warming

10 Ways to Go Green and Save earth Save Money

10 Ways to Go Green and Save earth Save Money

How can we live lightly on the Earth and save money at the same time? Here I want to share ideas on how to GO GREEN and SAVE GREEN at home and at work.

Awareness it’s now at fullest. It seems like everyone's "going green." Let’s take some more Efforts So that our grandchildren-and their children-will thank us for living more sustainably. Let's start now.

Save Energy to Save Money

·         Install compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) when your older incandescent bulbs burn out.
·         Unplug appliances when you're not using them.
·         Use a drying rack or clothesline to save the energy otherwise used during machine drying.

Save Water to Save Money.

·         Take shorter showers to reduce water use. This will lower your water and heating bills too.
·         Install solar water heater to have a warm and efficient bath

Save Fuel to Save Money

·         Walk or bicycle - This saves petrol/diesel costs while improving your cardiovascular health and reducing your risk of obesity.
·         Turn off your vehicles at stops
·         Proper check up your vehicles to use fuel efficienty

Eat smart.

·         Lower you oily food habit it cost more in cooking and as well as cause lots of harm to environment

Skip the bottled/packet water.

·         First of all they just cost a lot Next the use lots of plastic and finally if you can get free water around then why to pay

Think before you buy.

·         Buy things which are really necessary and avoid useless purchase as purchase results to more production and more production result to more harm

Borrow instead of buying.

·         Borrow from libraries instead of buying personal books and movies. This saves money, not to mention the ink and paper that goes into printing new books.

Buy smart.

·         Wear clothes that don't need to be dry-cleaned. This saves money and cuts down on toxic chemical use.
·         Invest in high-quality, long-lasting products. You might pay more now, but you'll be happy when you don't have to replace items as frequently (and this means less waste!).

Keep electronics out of the trash.

·         Keep your cell phones, computers, and other electronics as long as possible.
·         Donate or recycle your product such as cell phone responsibly when the time comes.

Grow your own organic garden.
·         Spare some amount of your property and plant some veggies, fruits which can help you to get a clean non toxic food without paying anyone

                                                Vishal Sancheti
                                                3rd sem I.T    



By Kevin Vasoya

1. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle : Do your part to reduce waste by choosing reusable products instead of disposables. Buying products with minimal packaging (including the economy size when that makes sense for you) will help to reduce waste. And whenever you can, recycle paper, plastic, newspaper, glass and aluminum cans. By recycling half of your household waste, you can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.

2. Switch off lights and other appliances when not in use and don't forget to unplug appliances too. it saves your money and energy both.

3. Change a Light Bulb : Wherever practical, replace regular light bulbs with compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs. Replacing just one 60-watt incandescent light bulb with a CFL will save many bucks over the life of the bulb. CFLs also last 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs, use two-thirds less energy, and give off 70 percent less heat.

4. Drive Less and Drive Smart: Less driving means fewer emissions. Besides saving gasoline, walking and biking are great forms of exercise. Explore your community mass transit system, and check out options for carpooling to work or school. When you do drive, make sure your car is running efficiently. For example, keeping your tires properly inflated can improve your gas mileage by more than 3 percent. Every gallon of gas you save not only helps your budget, it also keeps 20 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere.also drive slowly about 40-60km/h to have better mileage and reduce air resistance.

5. Buy Energy-Efficient Products : When it’s time to buy a new car, choose one that offers good gas mileage. Home appliances now come in a range of energy-efficient models, and compact florescent bulbs are designed to provide more natural-looking light while using far less energy than standard light bulbs. Avoid products that come with excess packaging, especially molded plastic and other packaging that can’t be recycled. If you reduce your household garbage by 10 percent, you can save 1,200 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.

7. save water :It’s also a good idea to turn off the water when you’re not using it. While brushing your teeth, shampooing the dog or washing your car, turn off the water until you actually need it for rinsing. You’ll reduce your water bill and help to conserve a vital resource. also utilise rain water harvesting technique.

8. Plant a Tree : If you have the means to plant a tree, start digging. During photosynthesis, trees and other plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. They are an integral part of the natural atmospheric exchange cycle here on Earth, but there are too few of them to fully counter the increases in carbon dioxide caused by automobile traffic, manufacturing and other human activities. A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime.

9. pay your bills and do other bank transactions online. it will have to save paper and reduce use of chemicals for printing.

10. Encourage Others to Conserve : Share information about recycling and energy conservation with your friends, neighbors and co-workers, and take opportunities to encourage public officials to establish programs and policies that are good for the environment.

Ozone Day 16th September

ozone day.........(16th september)

Hovering some 10 to 16 kilometres above the planet’s surface, the ozone layer filters out dangerous ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, thus protecting life on Earth. Scientists believe that the ozone layer was formed about 400 million years ago, essentially remaining undisturbed for most of that time. In 1974, two chemists from the University of California startled the world community with the discovery that emissions of man-made chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a widely used group of industrial chemicals, might be threatening the ozone layer.

The scientists, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina, postulated that when CFCs reach the stratosphere, UV radiation from the sun causes these chemically-stable substances to decompose, leading to the release of chlorine atoms. Once freed from their bonds, the chlorine atoms initiate a chain reaction that destroys substantial amounts of ozone in the stratosphere. The scientists estimated that a single chlorine atom could destroy as many as 100,000 ozone molecules.

The theory of ozone depletion was confirmed by many scientists over the years. In 1985 ground-based measurements by the British Antarctic Survey recorded massive ozone loss (commonly known as the “ozone hole”) over the Antarctic, providing further confirmation of the discovery. These results were later confirmed by satellite measurements.

The discovery of the “ozone hole” alarmed the general public and governments and paved the way for the adoption in 1987 of the treaty now known as the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Thanks to the Protocol’s rapid progress in phasing out the most dangerous ozone-depleting substances, the ozone layer is expected to return to its pre-1980s state by 2060–75, more than 70 years after the international community agreed to take action. The Montreal Protocol has been cited as “perhaps the single most successful international environmental agreement to date” and an example of how the international community can successfully cooperate to solve seemingly intractable global environmental challenges.

The extent of ozone depletion for any given period depends on complex interaction between chemical and climatic factors such as temperature and wind. The unusually high levels of depletion in 1988, 1993 and 2002 were due to early warming of the polar stratosphere caused by air disturbances originating in mid-latitudes, rather than by major changes in the amount of reactive chlorine and bromine in the Antarctic stratosphere.

The ozone layer over the Antarctic has been thinning steadily since the ozone loss predicted in the 1970s was first observed in 1985. The area of land below the ozone-depleted atmosphere increased steadily to encompass more than 20 million square kilometres in the early 1990s, and has varied between 20 and 29 million square kilometres since then. Despite progress achieved under the Montreal Protocol, the ozone “hole” over the Antarctic was larger than ever in September 2006. This was due to particularly cold temperatures in the stratosphere, but also to the chemical stability of ozone-depleting substances – it takes about 40 years for them to break down. While the problem is worst in the polar areas, particularly over the South Pole because of the extremely low atmospheric temperature and the presence of stratospheric clouds, the ozone layer is thinning all over the world outside of the tropics. During the Arctic spring the ozone layer over the North Pole has thinned by as much as 30 per cent. Depletion over Europe and other high latitudes has varied from 5 to 30 per cent.

World's Largest Producers Of ALternative Energy

Most countries have set high goals for the utilization of renewable energy by the middle of the century, but present day usage of alternative sources of energy is dominated by the developed nations such as the United States, Germany, Spain and Denmark, with Brazil and China leading the developing nations. Hydroelectric power is the dominant renewable energy due to its widespread use but wind energy and solar power are fast growing forms of alternative sources of energy.

Largest Producers of Hydroelectric Power

According to BP Statistical Review – Full Report 2009, published by Beacon Press in June 2009, the Three Gorges Dam helped China become the largest producer of hydroelectric power:
  • China has 171 gigawatts (GW) of installed hydroelectric capacity.
  • Canada has 90 GW.
  • The United States has 79 GW.
  • Brazil has 70 GW.
  • Russia has 45 GW.
  • India has 33 GW.
  • Norway has 28 GW.
  • Japan has 27 GW.
Although Norway is only ninth in installed capacity, it produces over 98% of all its electricity from hydroelectric power, while China, at number one with 171 GW of installed capacity produces just under 18% of its electricity needs from hydro.

Largest Producers of Wind Energy
Figures from IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2008, published by the International Energy Agency in June 2009 shows that, except for China and India, the developed world dominates the top ten wind energy users:
  • The United States has an installed capacity of 25,369 Megawatts (MW).
  • Germany, with 23,902 MW is in second place.
  • Spain comes third with 16,740 MW.
  • China has 12,200 MW.
  • India has 9645 MW.
  • Italy has 3,736 MW.
  • France has 3,387 MW.
  • The United Kingdom has 3,331 MW.
  • Denmark has 3,163 MW.

Largest Producers of Nuclear Energy
Many environmentalists would question the inclusion of nuclear fuel as a renewable source of energy, but there is no doubt that it is a virtually carbon free alternative to fossil fuels. Figures from Key World Energy Statistics, 2009, published by the International Energy Agency in December 2009 show that the countries with the highest installed capacity, are:
  • The United States has 106 gigawatts (GW) installed.
  • France has 63 GW.
  • Japan has 49 GW.
  • Russia has 22 GW.
  • Germany has 20 GW.
  • South Korea has 18 GW.
  • Ukraine has 13 GW.
  • Britain has 11 GW.
  • Sweden has 9 GW.
In all, the world has 372 GW of installed nuclear capacity.

Largest Producers of Biofuels
Renewables Global Status Report: 2009 Update, published in December 2009 by REN21 has the United States as the world’s largest producer of biofuels in 2008:
  • The United States produced 36 billion liters of biofuels.
  • Brazil produced 28 billion liters.
  • France produced 3 billion liters.
  • Germany produced 2.7 billion liters.
  • China produced 2 billion liters.
In all, the world produced just less than 80 billion liters of biofuels.

Largest Producers of Solar Power
Renewables Global Status Report: 2009 Update states that, “Grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) continued to be the fastest growing power generation technology, with a 70 percent increase in existing capacity to 13 GW in 2008.” The largest producers of solar power are:
  • Germany has 5,400 grid – connected megawatts (MW).
  • Spain has 3,300 MW.
  • Japan has 1,970 MW.
  • The United States has 830 MW.
  • South Korea has 350 MW.

In all, there is nearly 13,000 grid – connected solar PV megawatts available worldwide.
In nutshell, Depending on the type of renewable energy used, the U.S., China, Germany, South Korea and Brazil are among the world's largest producers of alternative energy.

Prepared by,
Raj Khirsariya
7th Mechanical